Movement Patterns at Joints *Click images to enlarge*Ligaments
At all synovial joints, bones are secured to each other by ligaments. These are made out of strong and very tough fibrous tissue (collagen) that is slightly elastic, but does not allow much movement. Ligaments join bone to bone. They do not cause movement; that is caused by muscle action on the bones. Sometimes, as is the case with the knee joint, ligaments limit movement in certain directions, helping to maintain stability.Tendons
Tendons attach muscle to bone. These are strong flexible cords which transmit the pull of the muscle to the bone to create movement. They are also made from collagen. Tendons are strong but inelastic – they do not stretch.Cartilage
Cartilage is a type of tissue which is present in all joints. There are two main types of cartilage:
Hyaline (articular) cartilage – this is found at the end of the long bones inside the joints. It is smooth, tough and hard-wearing, protecting the ends of the bones from rubbing against each other when they move. Synovial fluid provides nutrients to this cartilage.
White fibro-cartilage – this is found in the spine between the vertebrae, where it acts as a shock absorber. It is also found in more complex joints. In the knee, this cartilage forms crescent shaped pieces of cartilage, known as menisci, which are found between the two bones. They are very strong and act like shock absorbers between the bones.Exercise and the joints
Hyaline cartilage thickens protecting the bones from wear and tear.
Tendons thicken and can withstand greater muscular force.
Ligaments stretch slightly enabling a greater range of movement at the jo in int.@Radiologist_Library